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River Primary School

River Primary School

Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar

SPaG Term

What is it?


Prior Knowledge Needed

Abstract noun

A feeling or concept you cannot touch

Happiness, education


Active verb

When the subject of the verb completes the action

The school arranged the visit.

Subject object verb noun

Active voice

The subject of the sentence performs the action

Active: The school arranged a visit.

Passive: A visit was arranged by the school.

Verb, noun, subject, sentences


Used to describe a noun. It can go before to modify or after to compliment the noun. They can have comparative or superlative forms.


NB – do not use ‘describing words’ as other word classes do this e.g. adverbs.

Before: The brown dog sat down.


After: The dog was brown.


Old older oldest



Modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs and clauses


NB – not all adverbs end in –ly.

very soon started snoring loudly. (soon modifies the verb, very modifies the adverb soon)


That match was very exciting.


Fortunately, it didn’t rain. (modifies whole clause)

Verbs, adjectives, clause

Adverbial phrase

Modifies a verb or clause. Can be separated into time, reason, manner and place. Adverbials do not contain verbs.


NB – be aware of subordinate clauses and prepositional phrases

Time: in 5 minutes

Reason: due to the rain

Manner: with no fear

Place: beyond the sea


Some may contain verbs:

Verb, clause, adverbs


When a series of words begin with the same consonant sounds


NB – it is not always the same letter e.g. generous jungle (alliteration) or sad shellfish (not alliteration)

Simmering slowly


Words, sounds, letters, phonemes


Formed of 26 letters including vowels and consonants




Words with opposite meanings

Hot and cold


Apostrophe (‘)

Can show omission of letters or possession of nouns.


Signifies a letter has been removed and two words have been combined. Some omissions change the root word.

Singular possession: if there is one subject owning the object, an apostrophe then –s is added.

Plural possession: if there is a number of subjects owning the object (i.e. the noun already ends in –s) , the apostrophe goes after the -s

Irregular plural possession: e.g. children’s.  The subject is already one collective group, the apostrophe goes before the –s.

Singular proper noun ending –s: if the noun is singular but ends in –s e.g. James or princess and an apostrophe is needed to show singular possession the following are both acceptable. Children should be exposed to both. The use of an additional –s after the root word ending in –s can be dependent on how it is pronounced.

Omission: I’m, won’t


Singular possession: Hannah’s toys.


Plural possession:

The boys’ toys.


Irregular plural possession: The children’s toys.


James’ robot.

James’s robot.


The princess’ crown.

The princess’s crown


Pronunciation specific e.g.:

Mr Hastings has a pen. It is Mr Hastings’ pen.

Punctuation, letter, word, noun, subject, object, plural, singular,

Spelling, Punctuation And Grammar Policy